The Gulf of Riga *SPRING* planktonic food web as described in: Donali, E., Olli, K., Heiskanen, A.S., Andersen, T., 1999. Carbon flow patterns in the planktonic food web of the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea: a reconstruction by the inverse method. Journal of Marine Systems 23, 251–268. Originator: Dick van Oevelen and Karline Soetaert ##################################################################### !==================================! ! MEASURED CONCENTRATIONS, mgC/m3 ! !==================================! ! Values from table 2, p. 254 ## STOCK P1 = IniP1 ! PicoAutotrophs P2 = IniP2 ! Non-picoAutotrophs B = 70.54 ! Bacteria N = 13.22 ! Heterotrophic nanoflagellates Z = 34.99 ! Zooplankton-heterotrophic nanoflagellates D = 632.03 ! Detritus + virus DOC = XNA ! Dissolved organic carbon - not known ## END STOCK ## EXTERN CO2 Sedimentation ## END EXTERN ## PARAMETER Inip1 = 20.73 {mmol/m3} ! PicoAutotrophs Inip2 = 549.29 {mmol/m3} ! Non-picoAutotrophs MaintenanceResp = 0.1 ## END PARAMETER !===================! ! NET INPUT VALUES ! !===================! ## RATE P1 = 1.64 !(SE 0.45) ! PicoAutotrophs P2 = 8.09 !(SE 46.94) ! Non-picoAutotrophs N = 0.15 !(SE 1.02) ! Heterotrophic nanoflagellates Z = 0.48 !(SE 1.73) ! Zooplankton-heterotrophic nanoflagellates B = 1.56 !(SE 0.71) ! Bacteria D = 52.94 !(SE 56.20) ! Detritus + virus DOC = -176.92 !(SE 33.50) ! Dissolved organic carbon ## END RATE !====================! ! RATE OF CHANGES ! !====================! ! dP1=-Flow(p1,0) -Flow(P1,Z) -Flow(P1,N) -Flow(P1,DOC) +Flow(0,P1) ! dP1=-Flow(p2,0) -Flow(P2,Z) -Flow(P2,N) -Flow(P2,DOC) +Flow(0,P2) ! dZ =-Flow(z,0) +Flow(P2,Z) +Flow(N,Z) +Flow(D,Z) -Flow(Z,D)-Flow(Z,DOC) ! dN =-Flow(N,0) +Flow(P1,N) +Flow(B,N) -Flow(N,Z) -Flow(N,DOC) ! dD = Flow(P2,D) +Flow(Z,D) ! dB = Flow(DOC,B)-Flow(B,N) -Flow(B,0) ! dDOC=Flow(N,DOC)+Flow(P1,DOC)+Flow(P2,DOC)+Flow(Z,DOC)+Flow(D,DOC)-Flow(DOC,B) ## FLOW ! Respiration fluxes Flow(P1,CO2) = ZeroOrder Flow(P2,CO2) = ZeroOrder Flow(Z,CO2) = ZeroOrder Flow(N,CO2) = ZeroOrder Flow(B,CO2) = ZeroOrder ! Production fluxes Flow(CO2,P1) = ZeroOrder Flow(CO2,P2) = ZeroOrder ! PicoAutotrophs Flow(P1,Z) = ZeroOrder Flow(P1,N) = ZeroOrder Flow(P1,DOC) = ZeroOrder P1 -> Sedimentation ! Non-Pico autotrophs Flow(P2,DOC) = ZeroOrder Flow(P2,Z) = ZeroOrder Flow(P2,D) = ZeroOrder Flow(P2,Sedimentation) ! Nanoflagellates Flow(N,DOC) = ZeroOrder Flow(N,Z) = ZeroOrder ! Zooplankton Flow(Z,DOC) = ZeroOrder Flow(Z,D) = ZeroOrder Flow(Z,Sedimentation) ! Detritus Flow(D,Z) = ZeroOrder Flow(D,DOC) = ZeroOrder D -> Sedimentation ! Bacteria Flow(B,N) = ZeroOrder B -> Sedimentation ! DOC Flow(DOC,B) = ZeroOrder ## END FLOW ## VARIABLES GrossProdP1 = Flow(CO2,p1) RespirationP1 = Flow(p1,CO2) DocReleaseP1 = Flow(P1,DOC) SedP1 = Flow(P1,Sedimentation) GrossProdP2 = Flow(CO2,p2) RespirationP2 = Flow(p2,CO2) DocReleaseP2 = Flow(P2,DOC) SedP2 = Flow(P2,Sedimentation) GrossPrimProd = GrossProdP1 + GrossProdP2 Totalresp = Flow(P1,CO2) +Flow(P2,CO2) +Flow(Z,CO2) +Flow(N,CO2) +Flow(B,CO2) ZooDOCrelease = Flow(Z,DOC) ZooGrazing = Flow(P1,Z) +Flow(P2,Z) +Flow(N,Z) +Flow(D,Z) ZooFoodIntake = Zoograzing ! DOCrelease is sloppy feeding ZooFaeces = Flow(Z,D) ZooFaecesSed = Flow(Z,Sedimentation) ZooAssimilation = ZooFoodIntake - ZooFaeces - ZooFaecesSed ZooRespiration = Flow(Z,CO2) BactRespiration = Flow(B,CO2) BactAssimilation = Flow(DOC,B) ! 100% efficiency SedB = Flow(B,Sedimentation) NanoRespiration = Flow(N,CO2) NanoGrazing = Flow(B,N)+Flow(P1,N) NanoGrazingBacteria = Flow(B,N) NanoGrazingP1 = Flow(P1,N) NanoAssimilation = NanoGrazing ! 100% efficiency DetritusDOCrelease = Flow(D,DOC) SedD = Flow(D,Sedimentation) ## END VARIABLES !======================! ! EQUALITY CONSTRAINTS ! !======================! ## EQUATION ! Gross primary production GrossPrimProd = 138.63 !(SE 13.62) ! Total respiration Totalresp = 210.26 !(SE 34.57) ! Net bacterial production BactAssimilation - BactRespiration = 10.59 !(SE 2.32) ! Sedimentation SedP1 = 0.12 !(SE 0.07) SedP2 = 8.17 !(SE 2.21) SedB + SedD = 32.14 !(SE 4.51) ZooFaecesSed = 0.00 ## END EQUATION !===================! ! CONSTRAINTS ! !===================! ## CONSTRAINT ! Detritus DOC release !-------------------------- DetritusDOCrelease < 0.02* D ! Gross primary production : mass-specific !-------------------------- GrossProdP1*P2 =GrossProdP2*P1*[1,2] ! Grazing of nanoflagellates !---------------------------- NanoGrazingBacteria*P1 = [0.5,2]*NanoGrazingP1*B ! Zooplankton grazing !-------------------------- -Flow(D,Z)*P1-Flow(D,Z)*P2+Flow(P1,Z)*D+Flow(P2,Z)*D > 0 ! Zooplankton assimilation !-------------------------- ZooAssimilation = [0.4,0.8]*ZooFoodintake ! Heterotroph respiration !-------------------------- ZooRespiration > Z*MaintenanceResp + ZooAssimilation * 0.4 !not recoverable from calculated flows BactRespiration > B*MaintenanceResp + BactAssimilation* 0.4 NanoRespiration > N*MaintenanceResp + NanoAssimilation* 0.4 !not recoverable from calculated flows ! Autotroph respiration !-------------------------- RespirationP1=GrossProdP1*[0.05,0.55] RespirationP2=GrossProdP2*[0.05,0.55] ! Autotroph DOC release !-------------------------- DOCreleaseP1 > GrossProdP1 * 0.05 DOCreleaseP2 > GrossProdP2 * 0.05 ! Zooplankton DOC release !-------------------------- ZooDOCrelease > ZooGrazing*0.1 ! not recoverable from calculated flows ! Sedimentation of bacteria !-------------------------- SedB < 0.02*BactAssimilation - 0.02*BactRespiration ## END CONSTRAINT